Then they obviously provided large targets for artillery fire. When Pyrrhus of Epirus (319-272 BCE) requested support for his upcoming Italian campaign, Ptolemy II could afford to provide him with 50 elephants, among other forces. (1-Macc. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The armies of the Antigonids and Ptolemies also fielded Asian elephants, although generally in much smaller numbers. Web. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The combination of these three attributes remains poorly understood, although the portrait as a whole makes little sense from a classical Graeco-Macedonian perspective. Sword blades or iron points were added to the tusks and bells hung from the body to create as much noise as possible. The most important effect of elephants in the field was probably, then, a psychological one. The Macedonian army, nevertheless, refrained from advancing into the Ganges Valley – as they received information not only about the vastness of the country but also the alleged strength of its forces (including at least 3000 elephants). present-day northern Algeria) supplied elephants to the Pompeian forces during the Roman Civil War (49-45 BCE). "Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Related Content Detail of a 6th Century CE Elephant Mosaicby Carole Raddato (CC BY-NC-SA). They were deployed on the battlefield to strike terror into the enemy, however, since fear was considered divinely inspired, elephants can be interpreted as religious symbols even in warfare. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Elephants were historically deployed on the battlefield to strike terror into enemy troops inexperienced with their sight. Starting the battle in a simple line in front of their own troops they could cause undisciplined and poorly trained cavalry lines to scatter in panic. u (“elephant”) (compare Tahaggart Tamahaq êlu, Tamasheq alu) or Egyptian ꜣbw (“elephant; ivory”). As the ancient historian Ammianus Marcellinus put it, "the human mind can conceive nothing more terrible than their noise and huge bodies" (Anglim, 132). Early Riders: The Beginnings of Mounted Warfare in Asia and Europe. Some people might wonder why the world is still so hung up on ancient Greek myths when they are nothing but stories and they came from thousands of years ago. Antiochus I (324/3-261 BCE) deployed war elephants against the Galatians who had crossed the Balkans into Greece and then moved into Asia Minor (c. 275/4 BCE). The Romans … It persisted in the Balkans till 800 years ago and the Greek legend of the Hercules mentions lions in ancient Greece. Before the fighting, Ptolemy’s elephants are said to have raised trunks in prayer to the rising sun. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. “Behold the wild beasts around you,” God spoke to Job and continued describing a fearsome and mighty monster, literally a Behemoth (lit. Most war elephants deployed in the Hellenistic period derived from India. One of the most precious artifacts among the Boscoreale treasure discovered in 1895 CE (now in the Louvre) – and perhaps one of the most beautiful works of ancient art – is a silver emblema dish with an allegorical portrait attributed to Cleopatra Selene (40-5 BCE), the daughter of Cleopatra and Mark Antony. See more ideas about war elephant, ancient warfare, ancient war. Regardless of what animal the biblical Behemoth might reflect, it remains interesting that later, according to Pliny, the Romans would call elephants “bulls” after first encountering them during the campaign against Pyrrhus. After Gaugamela, 15 elephants were captured from the Persian camp, along with the baggage, chariots and camels. See more ideas about war elephant, elephant, ancient warfare. During the succession crisis that erupted at Alexander’s sudden death, elephants were employed not only when opposing factions were about to engage each other in fighting, but also to execute the death sentence after the rivals were put on ad-hoc trial. Submitted by Mark Cartwright, published on 16 March 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Nov 12, 2020 - Explore Jonah Bomgaars's board "War Elephants!" Early use of elephants in battle by Alexander’s successors involved only a rider (mahout) and perhaps a spearman. In antiquity, two elephants were known – the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus) and the African Forest elephant ( Loxodonta cyclotis). Tarentum, a Greek city in southern Italy recruited him to combat a growing and belligerent neighbour to the north, Rome. Next, the ram’s horn that encircles Alexander’s temple is understood to be an attribute of Ammon, the Libyan oracular deity, whose cult lies in the desert oasis of Siwah. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Even later authors could be quoted to confirm that in classical Greek and Latin literature, elephants belong to the same order of fierce and frightful fabulous monsters as the martichora, unicorn, griffon, sphinx, dragon, and hippocamp. The trunk appears to curl as if in prayer in a manner resembling an upright cobra (uraeus). In the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, the elephants carried rugs on their backs, called hatthatthara in the Buddhist Pali works. Roman Mosaic Showing the Transport of an Elephantby Carole Raddato (CC BY-SA). On an early 16th-century Flemish tapestry (now in New York) the personification of Fame stands in a chariot drawn by two white elephants as they trample death and fate. Even the smell of elephants could drive unprepared horses into a stampede. https://www.ancient.eu/article/876/. There is a curious instance when two elephant corps met where each side was composed of different types. The ultimately unsuccessful campaign was commemorated on a ceramic plate from Capena (now in the Villa Giulia, Rome), which shows a turreted elephant with a rider and fighters on its back, followed by a cub. Thus its categorization was further complicated by the fact that an army, which deployed elephants might consider them allies, while the opposing army would consider them adversaries. Indeed, such was the demand that at Latium and Constantinople permanent herds were kept and the insatiable desire for wild elephants practically wiped out the forest elephant of North Africa. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Roman Mosaic Showing the Transport of an Elephant, Detail of Roman Sarcophagus with an Elephant, Detail of a 6th Century CE Elephant Mosaic. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. elephant translation in English-Ancient Greek (to 1453) dictionary. (Hist. License. That’s assuming the … Greek authors continued to associate elephants with legends and fabulous monsters – that is, for our modern mind non-existing figments of ancient imagination. There Pyrrhus gained notable victories against the Romans in the battles of Heraclea (280 BCE) and Asculum (279 BCE). Cite This Work During the eastern campaign of Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE), Greek and Macedonian soldiers first encountered elephants in Assyria, at the Battle of Gaugamela (331 BCE), where they were, however, apparently not deployed. Cartwright, Mark. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. According to Patrick Winn, a correspondent for The World, war elephants may be divided into two types: those which participate in battles and those used for logistical purposes. Detail of Roman Sarcophagus with an Elephantby Carole Raddato (CC BY-SA). Allegedly the cognomen of Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) derived from the Moorish word for “elephant” (caesai), rather than from caesius or caeruleus (pertaining to the color of the sky). So, he too may possibly have been the Hindu deity identified with Heracles by the Greeks and Macedonians. When Ptolemy (c. 367-282 BCE), the appointed governor of Egypt, transferred said funerary cortege to Memphis, the Macedonian regent Perdiccas retaliated by invading Egypt with the royal army, including elephants (c. 321/0 BCE). All three attributes symbolize Alexander’s divine sonship and the attributes portray him as the heroic descendant of the slayer of demons, underlying the associations between the mythic figures of Dionysus and Heracles (both sons of Zeus), Shiva (an emanation of Indra) and Krishna (an avatar of Vishnu), as well as Horus (the reincarnation of Osiris). After the death of her parents, Octavian brought her to Rome and subsequently married her to King Juba II of Numidia, son of Juba I. Bibliography The Mauryans used three riders, all archers, with … When the sun god Helius (Amun-Ra) appeared to him in a dream expressing his anger, Ptolemy set up four bronze elephants as votives to appease the god. Oppen, Branko V. "Elephants in Hellenistic History & Art." The king commemorated his victory by sacrificing four of his enemy’s elephants. "Elephants were considered the tanks of the time, until eventually the Romans figured out how to defeat war elephants," in later times, said study co-author Alfred Roca, an animal scientist at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 6:34.). If this happened the rider used a metal spike and hammer to pierce the elephant’s brain and kill it immediately. This was at the Battle of Raphia (on the Sinai peninsula) in 217 BCE between Ptolemy IV and Antiochus III. The ram’s horn was thus a divine attribute associated with panic and madness. Web. During the late Roman Empire elephants were also given and received as gifts to improve diplomatic relations with neighbouring states. The two elephant corps clashed directly and the smaller-sized African elephants gave way, even if Ptolemy won the battle overall. In Greek mythology, Pan and the satyrs in the retinue of Dionysus were depicted with ram’s horns. Larger elephants were outfitted with tower-like devices protecting occupants from ground-level attack and providing an excellent battlefield vantage point. Indra, however, is the son of Dyaus Pitrā (“Sky Father”), which parallels Zeus Pater and Jupiter. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 16 Mar 2016. Tossing, ripping, and crushing the enemy, elephants were used to cause havoc with any defensive fieldworks and fortifications too, where they knocked down walls with their foreheads or pulled them down with their trunks. T. and once in the N. T. The animal itself is named only in the Apocrypha, always as an engine of war. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Then there was the problem of transporting them to where they were needed, although famously, the Carthaginian general Hannibal managed to get at least some of his 37 elephants across the Alps and into Italy in 218 BCE. Cartwright, M. (2016, March 16). The use of elephants in warfare had spread to Persia in earlier centuries from India where elephants had been used for millennia. An elephant charging into a group of soldiers or horses could decimate a formation. The founder of the Mauryan kingdom, Chandragupta established his power shortly after Alexander’s death (r. c. 322/1-299/8 BCE). From Alexander to Hannibal During the eastern campaign of Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE), Greek and Macedonian soldiers first encountered elephants in Assyria, at the Battle of Gaugamela (331 BCE), where they were, however, apparently not deployed. ". Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/article/1381/. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Despite the cost and difficulties, and because in antiquity the evolution in weaponry was extremely slow, the attraction of such large animals trampling all over the enemy remained. Elephant & Griffonby Branko van Oppen (CC BY). Featured on Meta 2020 Community Moderator Election. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. τος ) [7] The Indian Dragon was a breed of giant serpent which could fight and strangle the elephants of India. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. One of Petrarch’s four famous Triumphs, the “Triumph of Fame over Death,” has been frequently illustrated by generations of artists. I will answer this question from an Indian perspective. His son, Ptolemy Ceraunus, who was passed over for the succession, imitated his father’s coinage when he claimed the succession over Lysimachus’ kingship. Indra, the sky god, who wields thunder and lightning, might be compared with Zeus. Next, the venerable Aristotle likewise discussed elephants in the same context as the martichora and believed that they could live for up to 300 years and “can be taught to kneel in the presence of the king.” (History of Animals 2.1, 8.9 and 9.46.). Bibliography Alexander’s facial features are full of pathos, his diadēma (headband) signifies his royalty, his large bulging eyes intimating his divinity. Seleucid coinage regularly propagates the symbolic military importance of elephants as an expression of their power. Triumph of Fameby Metropolitan Museum of Art (Copyright). 24 Dec 2020. The supreme deity Shiva is considered both benign and frightful. Elephants were, perhaps strangely, not used by the Romans as transportation of heavy goods either. https://www.ancient.eu/article/1381/. The latter is now almost extinct and only found in the Gambia; it was smaller than the, at the time unknown, African elephant of central and southern Africa (Loxodonta africana), which explains why ancient writers all claimed the Indian elephant was larger than the African. Elephants were thought of as fierce and frightful monsters in antiquity, very real though rarely seen until the Hellenistic period. In antiquity, two elephants were known – the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and the African Forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis). Furthermore, Caesar supposedly entered Britain with an elephant in 54 BCE (Polyaen. Related Content Tossing, ripping, and crushing the enemy, elephants were used to cause havoc with any defensive fieldworks and fortifications too. The three attributes were associated with three supreme deities of three different cultures: the aegis with Zeus; the ram’s horns with Ammon; the exuvia with Indra. This helped work the beasts into a rage. When Hannibal (247 - c. 182 BCE) moved against Rome, he crossed the Pyrenees from Spain with 37 elephants among his vast forces. The Pyrrhic campaign inspired the Carthaginians to acquire war elephants by the time of the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE). Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Pyrrhus (/ ˈ p ɪr ə s /; Ancient Greek: Πύρρος, Pyrrhos; 319/318–272 BC) was a Greek king and statesman of the Hellenistic period. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Strabo mentioned elephants about 50 times: citing Onesicritus that elephants could live for up to 500 years; Megasthenes who claimed to have seen elephants in a Bacchic chase; and Artemidorus who described elephants in Ethiopia along with sphinxes and dragons. Seleukos I Nikator famously swapped parts of his eastern empire to gain 500 elephants from Indian emperor Chandragupta in 305 BCE. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. This meant that military commanders went out of their way to supplement their armies with elephants. After his coronation in Memphis, the priest at Siwah confirmed that Alexander was recognized as the son of god. While reinforcements of African forest elephants would eventually reach Hannibal, they failed to assert any decisive effect even at the final Battle of Zama (201 BCE). Farther along the campaign, another 125-150 elephants were obtained in the Indus Valley as a gift of a local prince and through hunting. - Animal Life in the Scriptures Ancient Elephant. The Carthaginians were the next major users. Cavalry horses, especially, are frightened even of their smell. Books Able to readily acquire African elephants from the Atlas forest region they formed an elephant corps from the 260’s BCE. ", Lorber, C.C. Starting with the association with Alexander’s Indian triumph, the exuvia (elephant’s scalp) might best be understood as an attribute of an Indian deity, such as Indra, Shiva, or Krishna. The Romans seem to have been largely unimpressed with the use of elephants and employed them only rarely and in small numbers, usually supplied via Numidia. Elephants in Hellenistic History & Art. There are, furthermore, evident religious connections and influences between elephants and Hindu deities. This was especially so as Roman warfare developed. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. There is uncertainty as to when elephant warfare first started but it is widely accepted that it began in ancient India.The early Vedic period did not extensively specify the use of elephants in war. Huge, exotic, and frightening the life out of an unprepared enemy they seemed the perfect weapon in an age where developments in warfare were very limited. We were the first major power to field elephants on a large scale on battlefield. Last modified March 16, 2016. Oppen, Branko V. "Elephants in Hellenistic History & Art." “wild beast”), likened to bulls, with ribs made of bronze and a spine of cast iron. Books It was typically occupied by up to four javelin or missile throwers. In reality, perhaps only a handful of ancient battles had been decided because of the intervention of elephants. License. For, after the latter’s death at the Battle of Corupedium (280 BCE), Ceraunus had first joined Seleucus, then murdered him as avenger of Lysimachus' death, and issued gold staters with the portrait of Alexander on the obverse and Athena Nikephorus on the reverse along with smaller symbols such as an elephant and a lion’s head. Ancient History Encyclopedia. However, in the Rigveda, the king of Gods and chief Vedic deity Indra is depicted as riding either Airavata, a mythological elephant, or on the horse Uchchaihshravas as his mounts. Thank you! Pits and spikes were prepared to entrap them and, if they could get close enough, men were charged with hamstringing the beasts or hacking at their trunks. One should wonder, therefore, why generals would be interested in recruiting these pachyderm monsters in warfare at all when there is little strategic advantage in deploying them against each other. C.A. The first use of elephants by humans began about 4,000 years ago in India. Ancient authors recognized Heracles in an unspecified Hindu deity and the identification remains unsettled among modern scholars. However, one look at the vast amount of ancient Greek-themed movies and literature today, people will quickly come to the conclusion that the world is still fascinated with Greek mythology though they might not always be able to say why. Elephants were dressed for battle in armour which protected their heads and sometimes front. Unfortunately, impressive though they must have seemed on the battlefield, the cost of acquiring, training, and transporting these creatures, along with their wild unpredictability in the heat of battle, meant that they were used only briefly and not particularly effectively in Mediterranean warfare. The frightful Shiva, also understood as an emanation of Indra, is a destroyer, the slayer of demons. Indeed, Caesar’s silver denarius coinage of his moving mint (c. 50-45 BCE) significantly employed the elephant trampling a serpent as he crossed the Rubicon River as an allusion to the victory of good over evil. Although the Carthaginians suffered heavy losses while crossing the Alps, an unspecified number of elephants did enter the Po Valley and then crushingly defeated the Roman consular armies at the Trebia River. Sure, everyone is familiar with the North American Mastodon and the Woolly Mammoth—but how much do you know about the ancestral pachyderms of the Mesozoic Era, some of which predated modern elephants by tens of millions of years? Still, Caesar was able to defeat Metellus Scipio at the Battle of Thapsus in Tunisia (46 BCE) and he captured over 60 elephants after his African victory and displayed 40 in a Roman triumph. Thank you! The shape of the elephants’ trunks resembles the trumpet Fame sounds. After a few centuries when elephants were out of vogue, the Sasanians in Persia revived the use of war elephants, fielding the Indian species from the 3rd century CE onwards, albeit, largely for logistics and during sieges. The Elephant in the Greek and Roman World (1974). Elephant corps did not have everything their own way, of course. This suggestion is substantiated by the accounts of the Battle of Raphia (217 BCE) which decisively settled the Fourth Syrian War between the forces of Ptolemy IV and Antiochus III in favor of the former. Elephants, being only available from Africa or Asia, were expensive commodities to acquire for Mediterranean powers. Added to this was the cost of maintaining them and training both the wild elephant and its rider to form some sort of battle order on the field of combat. Upon their return to Persia (c. 325 BCE), some 200 elephants are mentioned which had arrived via Arachosia and Carmania. "Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare." This latter eventuality was, in part, avoided by the stationing of a small team of infantry to protect the elephant’s legs. Even the ram’s horn – derived from the god Ammon of Siwah, and Amun-Ra of Memphis – acts to instill terror. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/article/876/. Carthaginian War Elephantby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). Elephant scalp worn by Demetrius I of Bactria (205–171 BC), founder of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, as a symbol of his conquest. Cite This Work Found 3 sentences matching phrase "elephant".Found in 0 ms. 2020 Moderator Election Q&A - … Replaced Middle English olifant (fro… Submitted by Branko van Oppen, published on 20 May 2019 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. In later times, the use of elephants was restricted to peace-time activities such as spectacles in the Roman arenas and circuses for public entertainment or as an impressive addition to public processions. As the gates of Susa were opened for Alexander, his forces acquired another twelve elephants. Oct 7, 2019 - Explore Mark Domenico's board "War elephant" on Pinterest. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Aug., Ael. (Job 40:15-24.) The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Indeed, the Seleucid Empire made sure to exclusively control the traffic in Asian elephants. Many of Alexander’s successors went one step further and employed them in battle proper. Diodorus related that Indian elephants were outfitted to strike terror in warfare against the invading Assyrian queen Semiramis. Phoenician terracotta lamp in the form of an elephant's head. In ancient Carthage, elephants were sometimes given copious quantities of wine to drink - elephants enjoy alcohol - and then their legs were prodded with red-hot irons. At an average height of 2.5 metres, weighing around 5 tonnes, and trotting up to 16 km/h (10mph), they could be tremendously effective wrecking machines. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. In the search for ever more impressive and lethal weapons to shock the enemy and bring total victory the armies of ancient Greece, Carthage, and even sometimes Rome turned to the elephant. Elephantby Carole Raddato ( CC BY-NC-SA ) from a classical Graeco-Macedonian perspective ground-level... ( Polyaen ’ 16 elephants elephants in ancient greece panic among the Galatians entering the Greek legend of the intervention elephants! And once in the battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE during the Successor Wars are there peacocks elephants. A handful of ancient battles had been decided because of the elephant among... Antiquity and well beyond, I have argued that the elephant ) dictionary to Plutarch 475... Indus Valley as a whole makes little sense from a classical Graeco-Macedonian perspective ꜣbw. 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