Viewers discretion is advised! A legion was roughly of brigade size, composed of 4,200 infantry and 300 cavalry in the republican period, extended to 5,200 infantry and 120 auxilia in the imperial period. A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens. The emblem of the legion was a b This question hasn't been answered yet Ask an expert. That’s because it was a specialist formation. open area i a city filled with public buildings, temples, and markets, a government in which citizens have a right to vote and elect officials, a basic unit of the army consisting of 4,500 - 5,000 men, unit of the army between 60 and 160 men (they were efficient if they were on flat terrain). Previous question Next question Transcribed Image Text from this Question. Their uniquely large scuta, as the Romans’ shields were called, allowed them to present a 360-degree wall of wood to opponents. The phalanx, though very powerful head on, was not as flexible as the Roman manipular formation and thus unable to adapt to changing conditions on the battlefield or break away from an engagement if necessary. And quite unsurprisingly, the Roman military system of this time was inspired by its more-advanced neighbor (and enemy) – the Etruscans. They obtained many types of weapons from other countries. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Each consul of the Roman Republic had the power to _____ or _____ _____ _____ the acts of the other. The phalanx is a tightly packed bunch of men in which, almost irregardless of your weapon (you can pick any one of 100 around the world in any combination) you were destined to loose. faster, smaller than the Greek phalanx. However, when confronted with more advanced infantry formations, such as the Macedonian pike phalanx or the Roman manipular legion (or even the Spartan phalanx), the hoplite phalanx almost invariably crumbled. Show transcribed image text. Start studying Ancient Rome. Large warships could not travel up the shallow river. A strong organized Roman Army/Divisions of Roman soldiers. The main mountains that helped to protect them were the Alps Mountains to the north, and the Tiber River, which flowed through Rome and was 15 miles from the Mediterranean Sea. Why did they abandon they Phalanx ? The Tiber River was a key trade rout and small ships could travel up and down the river. Did both Roman Republic Consul members have to agree before any law was passed? Start studying Final Review. In the foreground, a maniple has exploited a gap in the arrayed pikes of the white shield phalanx. This study examined the Republican Roman field armies (circa 218-168 BCE) to establish their tactical organization and deployment strategies in order to determine how significant it was to their success. Find evidence to support the idea that the Romans were open to the influence of foreign cultures. To date, about 50 have been identified. It's worth wondering why. I am not sure if I would say that the Romans were more maneuverable per se as we dont really have any examples of Roman legionnaires simply running around phalangites however they … The phalanx describes a tactical formation of soldiers whereas a Roman legion is more of an administrative unit, roughly comparable to modern “divisions”. Because legions were not standing units until the Marian reforms (c. 107 BC), and were instead created, used, and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. The Roman legion only narrowly defeated the Greek phalanx. Armed with spears or pikes, standing shoulder to shoulder with shields interlocking, the men of the phalanx presented an impenetrable wall of wood and metal to the enemy. Their weapons were the thrusting spear and the sword. Houston. The primary weapon used in the Greek phalanx was a longer type of spear known as a sarissa pike. The Roman legion was the largest military unit of the Roman army. Legio X: The Tenth Mounted Legion was the personal legion of Julius Caesar. Velites, Princepes, hestati, and trairii. They no longer grew their own wheat because the imported their wheat from conquered areas like Sicily. Describe legions. 218BC Hannibal Barca attacked Roman Army by land, Reason for most farms being destroyed during the 2nd Punic War. the great naval that was defeated by the Roman legions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Peter Connolly captures the action as the phalanx pins and pushes back the Romans on the level ground. Phyrrus) What I'm trying to say is that, back in 400 BC Spartans could crash a Roman army.100-150 years later though they would propably crashed.

From the time of Ancient Sumeria, the heavy infantry phalanx dominated the battlefield. Where The Roman Republic Consuls chosen or elected? by Jeff Jonas. Less Easily Maneuvered. Equites and velites are both part of the Roman legion. A legion was about 5,000 men in several cohorts of heavy infantry (legionaries). the English word derived from the action of killing every tenth member of a legion who had mutinied. Soldiers. Phalanx was unbeatable when it faces enemy. en how the legion and its unique tactical structure were successful against the phalanx. Etymology. STUDY. Or maniples. Furthermore, by the time Rome faced Macedon the Macedonian army had become a 1 trick pony; gone were the days of Philip & Alexander's combined … The 6000 Roman citizens of the legion fought as a phalanx of hoplites, a tactic that was widely used in Greece and Etruria. Legio I Italica ("First Italian Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded by emperor Nero on September 22, 66 (the date is attested by an inscription). When? history question, please help. These assessments describe the success of Rome on a very broad scale. It is generally perceived that with the later Battle of Pydna, this defeat demonstrated the superiority of the Roman legion over the Macedonian phalanx. Pikeman pretty much cease to exist after Rome defeated them in Greece and Anatolia. The two terms aren’t exactly comparable. The basic structure of both the Greek Phalanx and the Roman Legion were quite different from one another. gauls. decimation. What is a legion? If when they actually clashed then the Roman military system was superior and they had far more manpower than the divided Greek and Macedonian Successor States. It was cut off from other lands by sea and mountains. Phyrrus) What I'm trying to say is that, back in 400 BC Spartans could crash a Roman army.100-150 years later though they would propably crashed. 5. They weren't quick enough when they got ambush by the gaul. A key moment in Roman … The less rugged terrain helped unite the peninsula. After the fall of mighty Carthage in the Second Punic War (202 BC) Rome began to prepare for the invasion of Greece. In the Roman army, a full strength legion was officially made up of 6,000 men, but typically all legions were organized at under strength and generally consisted of approximately 5,300 fighting men including officers. And they would outnumber Spartan hoplites. Mostly, they would just be able to outflank the spartans. The Macedonian phalanx repulsed the first Roman legion and the Latins who fought alongside it. AFTER, seeing the wealth in conquered places like Carthage and Greece, the Romans sent the prisoners to be enslaved people who lived and worked on latifundias. the military formation used by Greeks in which common citizens held spears and shields side by side in battle. The Roman state, however, and its keen administrative ability and unprecedented power to muster and deploy forces with astonishing speed, defeated almost every state it was pit against. Romans got some of their alphabet from the Etruscans. Raised in ancient Greece, Polybius fought in Hellenic battles before being sent to Rome as a hostage, though he was given great freedoms during his stay. How was a Roman legion different from a Greek phalanx? READ MORE: Roman Kings, a complete list of the 7 early rulers. How often? Expert Answer . Mind you, I was aware that I would learn a lot about the Hellenistic phalanx and the Roman legion. Legion, a military organization, originally the largest permanent organization in the armies of ancient Rome. But I didn't know I'd learn so much. If when they actually clashed then the Roman military system was superior and they had far more manpower than the divided Greek and Macedonian Successor States. Side Score: 20. What are the 4 units in the legion ? Two distract heavier units. The Romans would be led by Julius Caesar while the Spartans would be led by Leonidas. Playing straight into the phalanx preference of fighting and force it into buckling destruction. When? Compare and Contrast Essay Between the Greek Goddess Artemis and the Roman Goddess Diana. Here is the post by Bares laying out the cases of phalanx vs legion. What time did Rome control the center? The epithet Italica is a reference to the Italian origin of its first recruits. Spartans lost from the Theban "oblique" phalanx.Its evolution,the Macedonian Phalanx, crushed the Thebans.And the Roman legion in most occasions won the phallanx (it lost sometimes though,f.e. Add New Argument. After the war, they didn't have the money to fix the land, so rich people bought up the small farm lands and combined them to make latifundias. The expanding early Roman Republic found the Greek phalanx formation too 'a handful') was a tactical unit of the Roman Republic adopted during the Samnite Wars (343–290 BC). To truly understand both of these revolutionary war tactics, in this essay I will compare and contrast the similarities and differences between the structure, purpose and effectiveness of both the Greek Phalanx and the Roman Legion. Roman legion. Because of this, Roman farmers burned their fields/crops. Then the men leading the elephants stopped driving them forward and threw down spears. Legion, a military organization, originally the largest permanent organization in the armies of ancient Rome. PLAY. With the next four the tribunes of the third legion have the first choice, those of the second the last; and so on in regular rotation: of which the result is that each legion gets men of much the same standard. It would be a legion (about 5,000 men) against 5,000 Spartans. The backbone of the 15,000-men-strong Roman army was the legion. The Greek Phalanx. The legions no longer protected the Roman frontier as they turned to looting the wealthy provinces of Italy and Greece. or it would end in a draw. We do have, however, "Strategikon", whose author may be the Byzantine emperor - Maurice. 275 BC . PLAY. I think that a interesting point. The hoplites were heavy infantry; armored with helmet, breastplate, greaves and a bronze round shield. Given that the legion almost consistently defeated the phalanx, Cole suggests the principal advantages the Roman military system possessed that led to this result. YES. BEFORE the last Punic War, enslaved people were NOT used in agriculture. The phalanx was a big square of destruction. It was also the name of the military insignia carried by such unit.. Maniple members, seen as each other's brothers in arms, were called commanipulares (singular, commanipularis), but without the domestic closeness of the eight-man contubernium. foreigners serving in a Roman legion. Rome's disposal of sewage was . From the time of Ancient Sumeria, the heavy infantry phalanx dominated the battlefield. There were trading ports along the river. Maniple (Latin: manipulus, lit. The adopted Greek heroes and legends as their own. The latifundias produced olive groves and vineyards. BRING IT HOME!! helots. I particularly enjoyed how Cole went beyond just the warfare elements. Add New Argument. While Hannibal's soldiers were in Italy (roaming), they lived off the land. Until our times, no Roman military regulations have been preserved, taking into account the period of the republic or the empire. They paid for the contracts and then they would collect taxes from the conquered people. The Government of the Roman Republic had how many consuls? However the Romans did give some of their Gods different names and duties than those of the Greek Gods. The Romans identified their gods with those of the Greeks. Salt allowence. It was also weak on the flanks, especially on the right. Legion versus Phalanx: The Epic Struggle for Infantry Supremacy in the Ancient World by Myke Cole. Some Greeks were … far more likely to reverence the gods. The term legion also denotes the military system by which imperial Rome conquered and ruled the ancient world. Find evidence to support the idea that the Romans were open to the influence of foreign cultures. The Romans, however, pioneered small-unit tactics, and organized their armies into smaller formations capable of acting independently of the rest of the army. What were the advantages of a legion compared to a phalanx? They had to be in the army from 20-25 years. Makes sense since the phalanx was only one part of the Hellenic Army, often not the main effort. Spartans lost from the Theban "oblique" phalanx.Its evolution,the Macedonian Phalanx, crushed the Thebans.And the Roman legion in most occasions won the phallanx (it lost sometimes though,f.e. The term legion also denotes the military system by which imperial Rome conquered and ruled the ancient world. According to Cicero, Romans, compared to other peoples were. 146 BC. Some descriptions of the testudo discriminate betw… wars between Greece and the Persian Empire which began in Ionia on the coast of Anatolia. WAB Macedonian Phalanx vs. Roman Legion. peasants forced to stay on the land they worked. The legion's tactics were actually themselves evolutions of the phalanx, indeed the Romans originally fought in the phalanx manner, but after some bad experiences (re sack of Rome) they made some modifications. phalanx. Whereas when King Perseus fought the Roman Legions at Pydna, he had forsaken the Combined Arms approach and reverted back to a full Phalanx force, the kind of force his ancestor King Alexander had defeated many a times with his Combined Arms approach. A strong organized Roman Army/Divisions of Roman soldiers. Roman legionaries, because they are more maneuverable. hannibal . This assertion undoubtedly has much merit given the number of men the Romans lost during that conflict (roughly 100,000 in the first two years alone). If the romans were channeled into a narrow area that the spartans could defend as a phalanx without moving, id say the spartans would win. . In the early Roman Kingdom legion may have meant the entire Roman army, but sources on this period are few and unreliable. What you're actually comparing is Roman heavy infantry, or even better described, line infantry, so the Hastati, Principes, Triarii. Define salarium. Kings were the head of the army, were the supreme judge and the chief priest. Some of the commands surely date back to Roman legions and were then in use. Expert Answer . Armed with spears or pikes, standing shoulder to shoulder with shields interlocking, the men of the phalanx presented an impenetrable wall of wood and metal to the enemy. A Roman legion was more flexible, because it had manacles that could split up and form shapes to trap the enemy. How long did the soldiers have to be in the army for? The Romans creates a united community during their conquest of Italy by. #WolfAndKaisaYou´ve never seen a Rome II battle like this!! Persian Wars. But it’s not a flaw, just an inevitable trade-off. When the next four are selected the tribunes of the second legion have the first choice, and those of the first the last. B. 290 BC. Legion versus Phalanx is a unique book because it attempts to show the difference from the perspective of a soldier. The Romans never trained troops in that fashion and as far as I know, never had auxiliaries fight like that. The Roman manipular legion and the Macedonian phalanx were each pivotal factors in the successes of their states, but was one formation actually better than the … The Phalanx was certainly inflexible. What time did Rome rule the whole peninsula? The titanic struggle between Rome and Carthage had prevented the Roman's from pursuing a policy of all out war against the Greeks. I would probably have to say Legio X. What was the reason for the change in Roman agriculture after Hannibal's invasion? the roman legions were created as a result of this group sacking Rome. Side Score: 35. Specialist units are, by their very nature, inflexible. This question hasn't been answered yet Ask an expert. It’s easy to see where the “tortoise” formation got its name. Question: Compared With The Phalanx, The Roman Legion Was O More Flexible And Adaptable. Compared to the tightly packed spearmen of the phalanx, the Roman heavy infantry, through their training and discipline, and operating in conjunction with light foot and cavalry, could quickly adopt a number of methods and formations depending on the situation. Led personally by him when he was governor of Hispania Ulterior, the legion was an alternative to cavalry auxiliaries, as Julius did not trust those from the territories recently conquered. The Roman manipular legion and the Macedonian phalanx were each pivotal factors in the successes of their states, but was one formation actually better than the other? Less Easily Maneuvered. The Roman empire developed much later than the Greek empire thus the Romans copied almost everything that the Greeks had developed over time, such as art, literature and Gods. stoning. The Roman/Italian military alliance had fully evolved by 264 BC and remained for 200 years the basis of Roman military organisation. Previous question Next question Transcribed Image Text from this Question. Rome defeated Carthage and gained 3 islands and Carthage agreed to make peace and left Sicily. Legions could fight according to maniples, centuries, and even individual soldiers with equal effectiveness. Question: Compared With The Phalanx, The Roman Legion Was O More Flexible And Adaptable. The best descriptions of the formations come from the historian Polybius. It needed better drill, a better command structure and better individual training and discipline to stand against other organised heavy infantry. the small farms had produced wheat for food. There are still records of the I Italica on the Danube border at the beginning of the 5th century. The Macedonian phalanx and the Roman legion are perhaps the most famous tactical formations in antiquity. Legion vs phalanx is the worst descriptor. At first, under the Etruscan Kings, the massive Greek phalanx was the mode of battle. Historians and students of the field alike have often compared the Hellenistic-era phalanx with the Roman legion, in an attempt to ascertain which of the formations was truly better. Roman Legionaire. The sarissa is too long for anyone to reach and formation is too dense for Romans to break it with pilums. It was supposed to be no more than 10% of the price paid for the contract, but most publicans made extra money, He was assassinated by the Senators when he wanted to be dictator for life. 5 points. Peloponnesian War. It was founded in 65 B.C, during Julius’ campaign to fully subdue Hispania fully under Roman control. republic. Early Roman soldiers hence must have looked much like Greek hoplites. In the time of the Early Roman Empire, there were usually about 25–35 permanent standing legions.A legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries. Rarely Successful. auxiliaries. The phalanx was a big square of destruction. Spartan Hoplite. a war between the city-states Sparta and Athens in 431 B.C. Arguably the greatest strength of the Roman legion was its ability to adapt and overcome; flexibility of formation gained Scipio Africanus his ultimate victory over Hannibal at Zama and thus eliminated Rome’s greatest rival in the Mediterranean. the leader of Carthage who led elephants into Italy. The phalanx was much better working on defense than offense. STUDY. The phalanxes of Alexander the Great humbled the armies of the mighty Persian Empire, while Roman legions conquered Italy, Carthage, and Gaul. The Romans sent the wagons against them, with some initial success. Roman Legions. 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